Symmetry classes of alternating-sign matrices under one roof


In a previous article [22], we derived the alternating-sign matrix (ASM) theorem from the Izergin-Korepin determinant [12], [19], [13] for a partition function for square ice with domain wall boundary. Here we show that the same argument enumerates three other symmetry classes of alternating-sign matrices: VSASMs (vertically symmetric ASMs), even HTSASMs (half-turn-symmetric ASMs), and even QTSASMs (quarter-turn-symmetric ASMs). The VSASM enumeration was conjectured by Mills; the other by Robbins [30]. We introduce several new types of ASMs: UASMs (ASMs with a U-turn side), UUASMs (two U-turn sides), OSASMs (off-diagonally symmetric ASMs), OOSASMs (off-diagonally, off-antidiagonally symmetric), and UOSASMs (off-diagonally symmetric with U-turn sides). UASMs generalize VSASMs, while UUASMs generalize VHSASMs (vertically and horizontally symmetric ASMs) and another new class. VHPASMs (vertically and horizonally perverse). OSASMs, OOSASMs, and UOSASMs are related to the remaining symmetry classes of ASMs, namely DSASMs (diagonally symmetric), DASASMs (diagonally, anti-diagonally symmetric), and TSASMs (totally symmetric ASMs). We enumerate several of these new classes, and we provide several 2-enumerations and 3-enumerations.

Our main technical tool is a set of multi-parameter determinant and Pfaffian formulas generalizing the Izergin-Korepin determinant for ASMs and the Tsuchiya determinant for UASMs [37]. We evaluate specializations of the determinants and Pfaffians using the factor exhaustion method.


Greg Kuperberg