An infinite Ramsey theorem and some Banach-space dichotomies


A problem of Banach asks whether every infinite-dimensional Banach space which is isomorphic to all its infinite-dimensional subspaces must be isomorphic to a separable Hilbert space. In this paper we prove a result of a Ramsey-theoretic nature which implies an interesting dichotomy for subspaces of Banahc spaces. Combined with a result of Komorowski and Tomczak-Jaegermann, this gives a positive answer to Banach’s problem. We then generalize the Ramsey-theoretic result and deduce a further dichotomy for Banach spaces with an unconditional basis.


W. Timothy Gowers